• The end «-ν» in the accusative masculine and feminine of the definite and indefinite articles is always in front of the vowels and mostly in front of the following consonants and combinations: «κ, ξ, π, τ, ψ,μπ, ντ, γκ, τζ and τσ», e.g. in the accusative of «η αγάπη» is «την αγάπη» - the lover. The «-ν» can be ommited in front of: «β, γ, δ, ζ, θ, μ, ν, λ, ρ, σ, χ en φ» e.g. the accusative of «το νησί» is «το(ν) νησί» - island
  • Sometimes the last vowel of the definite article or the beginning vowel of the next word can optionally be omitted, e.g. «το όνομα» becomes «τ'όνομα» - the name. This happens in the nominative and accusative of the neuter singular and plural.
  • When describing situations with the prepositions on, in, at and to, the preposition «σε» is shortened to «σ'» and merged with the definite article into «στον», «στην», «στα» etc.
  • The prepositions are indeclinable in Greek as well as in English. They can be placed in the genitive and accusative in front of nouns or personal pronouns, eventual in combination with an article or adjective. The most important prepositions are: «από» and «σε»:
  • The regular verbs consist of two groups, viz. group A. the first conjugation with active verbs ending in «-ω» (present tense) and passive verbs the ending in «-ομαι» and group B. the second conjugation with active verbs ending in «-ώ» or «-άω» and the passive verbs ending in«-ιέμαι» inclusive active verbs ending in «-ώ» or «-έω» and the passive verbs ending in «-ούμαι». Look at verbs - first conjugation and verbs - second conjugation.
  • Because verbs are a very complex part of Modern Greek morphology, it is essential that when conjugating the verb, the stem or stems of it also are learned. It is important that we can make a distinction between the ending of the verb and the stem. Look at the stem.
Some daily used expressions in Greek:
  • χάρηκα!
  • εντάξει!
  • δεν πειράζει!
  • κάνεις λάθος!
  • με συγχωρείτε!
  • συγνώμη!
  • nice!, fine!
  • Okay!
  • it does not matter!
  • you're wrong!
  • sorry! or pardon!
  • sorry! (after a mistake)
Some exclamations:
  • α!, ποπό!, ω!
  • μακάρι!, είθε!, άμποτε!
  • μπράβο!, εύγε!, ζήτω!
  • χα, χα, χα!
  • ε!, ου!!
  • with: admiration
  • with: wish
  • with: praise, appreciate
  • with: joy, merriment
  • with: mock

An adjective is a word that qualifies the noun or the pronoun in a sentence, (usually the noun). They occur in two different ways, viz:

  • As an adjectival complement of the noun. In this case it corresponds in gender, form and number to the noun it belongs to.
  • As a nominal predicate (also called subject complement). In this case, it is used as a predicate and corresponds to the subject in gender and number.

In the latter case the subject is always in the nominative

The adjectives in Greek are declined and must match in gender, case, singular and plural with the noun or pronoun they belong to.

The accent remains the entire declension on the same syllable, with the exception of a few cases in the genitive plural whereby the accent shifts from the third syllable from the end to the second last syllable.

Adjectives are the basis for the formation of the degrees of comparison and a large number of adverbs.

Some sentences:

Greek English
01.Τα παλιά δρομάκια της Αθήνας είναι στενά The old streets of Athens are narrow
02. Η ελληνική γλώσσα είναι δύσκολη. The greek language is difficult.
03. Ο όμορφος κήπος είναι πίσω από το σπίτι. The beautiful garden is behind the house.
04. Ο κήπος πίσω από το σπίτι είναι όμορφος. The garden behind the house is beautiful.
05. Ο καιρός στον Ιανουάριο είναι κρύος. The weather is January is cold.
06.Είναι παιδί με καλή καρδιά. He is a child with a good heart.
07. Τα αυγά για πρωινό είναι βραστά. The eggs for breakfast are boiled.
08. Είναι η τελευταία μας ελπίδα. It's our last hope.
09. Ο αέρας περνάει από τα ανοιχτά παράθυρα. The wind comes through the open windows.
10. Ο ουρανός είναι γαλάζιος εδώ το καλοκαίρι. The sky is blue here in summer.
Explanation about the sentences:
  • In sentence 1 are two adjectives, viz. the first «παλιός». his adjective belongs to the group with the ending in «-ος,- α, -ο» in the nominative singular. In this case it belongs to the noun «το δρομάκι». The phrase «τα παλιά δρομάκια» is in plural and also the subject of the sentence. The neuter plural of «παλιός» is «παλιά». The second adjective is «στενός», belongs to the group with the ending in «-ος, -η, -ο» in the nominative singular. The nominal predicate is «είναι στενά» and «στενά says something about the noun «τα δρομάκια». That's why «στενά» is also declined in the neuter nominative plural.
  • In sentence 2 are two adjectives, viz. «ελληνικός» and «δύσκολος». Both belong to the group with the endings in «-ος, -η, -ο», only the accentuation is different.The first is the adjective determiner of the noun «η γλώσσα» and the second the nominal part of the nominal predicate «είναι δύσκολη». Both declined in the nominative of the feminine singular.
  • In sentence 3 «όμορφος» is the adjectival that belongs to «ο κήπος». In this sentence «είναι» is just a predicate, because the second part of the sentence means here the garden is located behind the house. So «είναι» is not a linking verb. In sentence 4 «όμορφος» is the nominal part of the nominal predicate «είναι όμορφος». It belongs to the group adjective with the ending in «-ος, -η, -ο». Both are declined in de nominative singular, because first it pertains to the subject «ο όμορφος κήπος» and second to the subject «ο κήπος». In both cases «πίσω από το σπίτι» are adverbials of of place because the question where is the garden can be asked.
  • In sentence 5 «είναι κρύος» is the nominal predicate and «κρύος» the nominal part, parsed in the nominative singular. It is an adjective of the group with the endings in «-ος,- α, -ο». It pertains to the subject «ο καιρός and is consequently declined the same way.
  • In sentence 6 is «είναι παιδί με καλή καρδιά» the nominal predicate. The verbal part is «είναι» and «παιδί με καλή καρδιά» the nominal part, because it describes the unmentioned subject it.The adjective «καλός» bbelongs to the group with the endings in «-ος, -η, -ο» and «η καρδιά» is a feminine noun.
  • «βραστός» in sentence 7 belongs to the group adjectives with the ending in «-ος, -η, -ο» and «βραστά» is the nominal predicate in the nominative plural. It says something about the suject «τα αυγά».
  • n sentence 8 is «η τελευταία μας ελπίδα» the nominal predicate, hence the nominative is used. «τελευταίος» belongs to the group adjectives with the ending in «-ος,- α, -ο». «ελπίδα» is a feminine noun.
  • In sentence 9 the question: where came the wind through? can be asked. The answer «τα ανοιχτά παράθυρα», the direct object for which the accusative is used. «ανοιχτός» belongs to the group adjectives with the ending in «-ος, -η, -ο» and «το παράθυρο» is a neuter noun.
  • In the sentence 10 «γαλάζιος» belongs to the group adjectives with the ending in «-ος,- α, -ο» and is the nominal predicate. It is declined in the nominative singular like the subject, a masculine noun, «ο ουρανός».

In the above sentences «είμαι» is often used as a linking verb. Consequently we have to deal with a nominal predicate. Look also at the scheme in lesson 4 where this is addressed in detail nominal predicate.

De page with the adjctives ending in «-ος, -η, -ο» and «-ος,- α, -ο» can be found here.


Adverbs can modify adjectives, other adverbs, nouns, numbers and quantities. Adverbs give extra information about concepts as place, time, manner, quantity or number, denial of confirmation, doubt or hesitation, or even about a whole sentence.

Adverbs are indeclinable and also have degrees of comparison just like the adjctives.

There are adverbs:

type greek english
of place απέναντι opposite
ανάμεσα between
δίπλα next
εδώ here
εκεί there
μακριά far
of time αμέσως immediately
αργά late
αύριο tomorrow
κιόλας already
νωρίς early
σήμερα today
of manner αλλιώς otherwise
γρήγορα fast
έτσι so, thus
μαζί together
of quantity αρκετά enough, whole
λίγο litle
πολύ much
of confirmation ναι yes
μάλιστα certainly, even
of doubt and hesitation ίσως perhaps
μη(ν) don't
of denial δε(ν) not
όχι no
An example of each type of adverb:
Greek English
1. Το μαγαζί είναι εκεί. The shop is there.
2. Έλα εδώ αμέσως. Come here immediately.
3. Μιλούν μαζί. They speak together.
4. Διαβάζει πολλά βιβλία. He/she reads many book.
5. Μάλιστα, αυτό είναι θετικό. Certainly that's definite.
6. Ίσως θα έρθω στις οκτώ Perhaps I will come at eight.
7. Δεν το παίρνεις. You don't get it.

Full explanation of the adverbs.

There are adverbs which are derived from four different groups of adjectives. One of those adjectives group is with the endings in «-ος, -η, -ο».

Obtained adverbs ending in «-α» from adjectives ending in «-ος, -η, -ο»
adverb english adjective english
αργά late, slowly αργός, -ή, -ό slow
δυνατά strongly, loudly δυνατός, ή, -ό strong, powerful
χωριστά apart, separately χωριστίος, -η, -ο separate
φτηνά cheaply φτηνός, -ή, -ό cheap, low
A few examples:
Greek English
1. Ποτέ δεν είναι αργά. It's never too late.
2. Μιλούν δυνατά. They speak loudly.
3. Ζούν χωριστά. They live separately.
4. Αυτό δεν κοστίζεις φτηνά. That will cost you dearly.
  • «ποτέ», in sentence 1, is also an adverb (of time)
  • Sentence 4 translated literally would be That is (costs) not cheap

Explanation of the adverbs derived from djectives

In this lesson the following verbs, nouns, prepositions, adjectives, personal and possessive pronouns are used in sentences, including above-mentioned notes and the adverb scheme:
Greek English
meaning part of speech
διαβάζω to read, learn regular verb with active and passive voices
έρχομαι to come, arrive, get in irregular passive verb
ζω to live, dwell regular verb in the active voice
κοστίζω to cost regular verb in the active voice
μιλάω, μιλώ to speak, talk regular verb with active and passive voices
περνάω, περνώ to cross, go through, pierce, thread regular verb with active and passive voices
παίρνω to take, take (-away,-in, -up, -on), pick up, get, receive, steal, capture, inherit, derive, etc. irregular verb with active and passive voices
η αγάπη the lover feminine noun
ο αέρας the wind masculine noun
η Αθήνα Athens feminine noun
το αυγό the egg neuter noun
η γλώσσα the languge, tongue feminine noun
το δρομάκι the lane neuter noun
η ελπίδα the hope feminine noun
ο Ιανοθάριος January masculine noun
ο καιρός the weather masculine noun
το καλοκαιρι the summer neuter noun
η καρδιά the heart feminine noun
το νησί, η νήσος the island feminine noun
ο ουρανός the heaven, sky masculine noun
το όνομα the name neuter noun
το παιδί the child neuter noun
το παράθυρο the window neuter noun
το πρωινό the breakfast neuter noun
για for, to, about, about to, unto preposition
μας ours possessive pronoun
αυτό that, it indicative pronoun, personal pronoun
απέναντι opposite, acrross adverb
πίσω behind, back, after adverb
ποτέ never adverb
πώς how adverb
τόσο such, so much, so, this adverb
ανοιχτός, -η, -ο open, unlocked adjective
βραστός, -η, -ο boiled adjective
γαλάζιος, α, -ο blue adjective
ελληνικός, -η, -ο greek adjective
κρύος, -α, -ο cold adjective
παλιός, -α, -ο old adjective
σωστός, -η, -ο right, correct adjective
τελευταίος, -α, -ο last adjective
θα (will) particle of the future tense

The herewith formed sentences are:

Greek English
1. We have a house far from Athens. Έχουμε ένα σπίτι μακριά από την Αθήνα.
2. Σήμερα είναι καλός καιρός εδώ. Today the weather is beautiful here.
3. Παίρνουμε το ποδήλατο στο σχολεί. We take the bicycle to school.
4. Ζουν δίπλα σε ένα μαγαζί. They live next to a shop.
5. Δεν μιλάμε μαζί. They don't speak together.
6. Πώς τα περνάς; How are you doing?
7. Είμαι αρκετά καλά. I am quite well.
8. Τα παράθυρα είναι ανοιχτά και ο αέρας περνάει. The windows are open and the wind comes through.
9. Τώρα μάλιστα! That's it!
10. Τον Ιανουάριο είναι πολύ κρύο στην Αγγλία. In January it's very cold in England.
11. Έρχεται γρήγορα. He/she comes quick.
12. Το βιβλίο δεν κοστίζει τόσο πολύ. The book does not cost so much.
13. Μην το κάνεις αυτό, δεν είναι σωστό. Don't do that, it is not right.
14. Ερχόμαστε στις οκτώ. We come at eight o'clock.
15. Το διαβάζει έτσι κι αλλιώς. He reads it anyway.
16. Απέναντι από τα σπίτια είναι ο δρόμος. Opposite the houses is the street.
17. Παίρνει ότι είναι δικό μας. He/she is taking what's ours.
18. Τώρα ξέρεις τι περνάω. Now you know what I'm going through.
19. Κοστίζει πολύ αυτό. That costs a lot.
20. Zει με το φίλο της. She lives with her friend

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «διαβάζω».

  • διαβάζω
  • διαβάζεις
  • διαβάζει
  • διαβάζουμε, διαβάζομε
  • διαβάζετε
  • διαβάζουν(ε)
  • I read
  • you read
  • he/she/it reads
  • we read
  • you read
  • they read
  • In sentence 15 the 3rd person singular of «διαβάζω» is used. It is a regular verb which has the same conjugation as «αγοράζω» (lesson 1).

The present tense in the indicative mood of the passive verb «έρχομαι».

  • έρχομαι
  • έρχεσαι
  • έρχεται
  • ερχόμαστε
  • έρχεστε, ερχόσαστε
  • έρχονται
  • I come
  • you come
  • he/she/it comes
  • we come
  • you come
  • they come
  • «έρχομαι» is an irregular passive verb. It is used in sentence 11 in the 3rd person singular and in sentence 14 in the 1st person plural. It is used in a variety of expressions both literally and figuratively

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «ζω».

  • ζω
  • ζεις
  • ζει
  • ζούμε
  • ζείτε
  • ζούν(ε)
  • I live
  • you live
  • he/she/it lives
  • we live
  • you live
  • they live
  • The verb «ζω» is a regular active verb. it is used in sentence 4 in the 3rd operson plural and in sentyence 20 in the 3rd person singular. In the same sentence is «το φίλο της» het difrect object and is declined partly by the use of the prepositiion «με» in the accusative (4the case).

The present tense in the indicative mood of the active verb «κοστίζω».

  • κοστίζω
  • κοστίζεις
  • κοστίζει
  • κοσίζουμε, κοστίζομε
  • κοστίζετε
  • κοσίζουν(ε)
  • I cost
  • you cost
  • he/she/it costs
  • we cost
  • you cost
  • they cost
  • «κοστίζω» has been used twice, in sentence 12 and in sentence 19, both in the 3rd person singular. «κοστίζω» is a regular active verb.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «μιλάω, μιλώ».

  • μιλάω, μιλώ
  • μιλάς
  • μιλάει, μιλά
  • μιλάμε, μιλούμε
  • μιλάτε
  • μιλάν(ε), μιλούν(ε)
  • I speak/talk
  • you speak/talk
  • he/she/it speaks/talks
  • we speak/talk
  • you speak/talk
  • they speak/talk
  • «μιλάω, μιλώ» has been used once, in sentence 5 in the 1st person plural. It is a regular verb with an active and passive voice.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «περνάω, περνώ».

  • περνάω, περνώ
  • περνάς
  • περνάει, περνά
  • περνάμε, περνούμε
  • περνάτε
  • περνάν(ε), ξπερνούν(ε)
  • I cross/go through
  • you cross/go through
  • he/she/it crosses/goes through
  • we cross/go through
  • you cross/go through
  • they cross/go through
  • «περνάω, περνώ» has been used three times, in sentence 6 in the 2nd person singular, in sentence 8 in the 3rd person singular and in sentence 18 in the 1st person singular. It is a regular verb with an active and passive voice.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «παίρνω».

  • παίρνω
  • παίρνεις
  • παίρνει
  • παίρνουμε, παίρνομε
  • παίρνετε
  • παίρνουν(ε)
  • I take/get
  • you take/get
  • he/she/it takes/gets
  • we take/get
  • you take/get
  • they take/get
  • «παίρνω» has been used two times, in sentence 3 in the 1st person plural and in sentence 17 in the 3rd person singular. It is an irregular verb with an active and passive voice. «παίρνω» is a verb that has many meanings, hence a few examples with the use of it:
Greek English
με παίρνει να κάνω κάτι to be able to do something
να πάρει damn (it)
τον παίρνω to nod off