Highlights
English Grammar page

On the following links you will find some highly qualified websites on English Grammar, including parsing sentences:

Grammarpedia
UCL-English Grammar

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English - Modern Greek
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The participle:

  • a) shows us how the verb is described, like the adverbial participle or gerund.
    Klick here for the explanation

The participle:

  • b) gives a property to a noun, like an adjective, here for the explanation

Thus, the participle could be both a form of the verb and an adjective, moreover the word participle also means that it consists of two forms.

We have to deal with regular and irregular verbs. In terms of participles, regular verbs with passive voices form them according to certain patterns while the passive participles of irregular verbs are not formed according to any of those patterns.

The Modern Greek language has three participles, viz: The participles in the present tense of the active voice, in the present tense of the passive voice and in the perfect present tense of the passive voice.

Normally a verb has two participles, viz the participle in the present tense of the active voice and the participle in the perfect present tense of the passive voice. However there are verbs, which form all three participles

There are verbs that don't have a passive voice, but even so form a participle in the perfect present tense of the passive voice.

It is important to make a distinction between the stem and ending of a verb in order to form other verb tenses like participles.

To understand the functions of the different stems we have to make a distiction between two aspects, viz the imperfective and the perfective aspect, because of the reciprocity with the system of the tenses.

Most verb have two different perfective stems for the active and the passive voices. The distinction between those two groups is formally the different stem and semantically their aspect.

Intransitive verbs mostly don't form passive perfect participles, while there are exceptions too.

Participles derived from the stem of the imperfective present tense of the active verb (not an adjective), The Gerund

Other active voice participles derived from the stem of the imperfect and from the aorist stem of the active voice (adjectives of learned language)

Participles derived from the passive voices:

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a) explained
Ο Γεώργιος ήρθε γελώντας ενώ η Βαρβάρα ήρθε κλαίγοντας. George arrives laughing, while Barbara arrives crying.
Δίνοντας χρήματα, αρχίζουν τα προβλήματα. By giving money, the problems begin.

Sentence 1 shows us the state in which George and Barbara (both nouns) arrived and sentence 2 shows the adverbial relation between the verb and the main sentence. The participle is derived from the stem of the imperfective present tense of the active verb.

In English this is mentioned the Gerund (in Latin, gerundivum - infinitivus praesens activum), also known as the -ing form. The -ing form can be formed of almost any verb in English with an infinitive, except of can and may which have a lack of the infinitive.

The Gerund in Modern Greek has always an adverbial function. The participle is not conjugated and not used as an adjective form, just adverbially, that´s why it is also called adverbial participle. It indicates the manner in which an activity takes place, but also the time, reason and assumption during the activity. Normally, the activity that is described by the gerund is interpreted as contemporary with that of the main verb and rarely as previously of it. It determines the verb of a sentence but can never appear as a verbal type in a main sentence. The simplest and most obvious way to use the gerund structure is in secondary adverbial phrases. The endings «-οντας» and «-ώντας» are used and depend of the type of the used conjugation, the A or the B conjugation. E.g. one writes «γράφοντας» for the verb «γράφω» of the A conjugation and «γελώντας» for the verb «γελώ» of the B conjugation.

Μόνο μιλώντας ανοησία, ήταν γνωστός. Only by speaking nonsense, he was well-known. (manner)
Μπαίνοντας στο σπίτι ακούστηκε το τηλέφωνο του. Entering the house he heard his telephone (time)
Αγοράζοντας αυτό το κινητό θα έχεις πρόσβαση στο διαδίκτυο. Buying this mobile you will have access to the internet (assumption)
Η Ελένη ήταν τόσο λυπημένη που έτρεξε κλαίγοντας Helen was so sad that she ran away crying. (reason)

The gerund of the verb «είμαι» is «όντας» - being.

Ήταν έγκυος όντας ακόμη φοιτήτρια. She was pregnant, while still being a student.

As types of the participle are also considered the roundabout types of the present perfect of the active and the passive voices which are formed with the participle of the present tense of the verb to have «έχω» (having «έχοντας») and the infinitive of the corresponding voices, e.g.:

Έχοντας θεωρήσει ο Γιάννης το αποφάσισε. Having considered it John made op his mind.
Έχοντας τελειώσει τεχνικό λύκειο, έψαχνε για δουλειά. After finishing technical high school, he/she was looking for a job.

Mostly the Gerund has the same subject as the verb, but in some rare cases it is used with a different subject and has it a temporal function:

Αλλάζοντας ο καιρός, έγινε πολύ κυκλοθυμικός. When the weather changed he became very moody.
Διορίζοντας έναν νέο δάσκαλο, η τάξη προχώρησε. Upon a new teacher's appointment, the class progressed.
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b) explained:

1. Active voice participles

  • There are two types of participles in the active voice, which are declined as adjectives. They are from a learned tradition, introduced in the Standard Greek language. They include a limited group of verbs viz:
  • a) the active present participle. Their declension is based on the stem of the imperfect of the verb. Their endings are in: «-ων, -ουσα, -ον», or
    «-ών, -ώσα, -ών», or «-ών, -ούσα, -ούν.
  • b) the active past participle, which declension is formed with the endings in:
    «-ας,-ασα,-αν», added to the aorist stem of the active voice.
  • These active voice participles are found in older learned texts and journalistic writings or in a language which uses academic aspects to achieve stylishness, formalities and witticism.

Examples of the use of the Active voice participles are to be found here on below page.

2. Passive voice participles

  • The passive present participle behaves like an adjective in all cases of the three genders and has the following endings: «-άμενος, -άμενη, -άμενο», «-όμενος, --όμενη, -όμενο», «-ώμενος, -ώμενη, -ώμενο» or «-ούμενος, -ούμενη, -ούμενο», depending on the classs of the verb, added to the imperfective stem. They follow the declension pattern with the endings in «-ος, -η, -ο». Their number is also limited and they come from the learned tradition. It is is written with «ω» when the accent occurs on the second syllable from the end, the penultimate (e.g. «δηλωμένος», «φαγωμένος») and with «ό» when the accent is on the third syllable from the end, the antepenultimate (e.g. «εργαζόμενος», «αυξανόμενος»).
  • The participles of the passive past are also limited and of learned tradition. The endings are in «-είς,-είσα,-έν», which is added to the passive perfective (aorist) stem.
  • The perfect passive participle in the present tense is an adjectival form with the properties of an adjective and generally formed from transitive verbs with an active and passive voice. We are dealing with a very complex part of the Greek morfology viz. the verb and an important detail of it, the stem of the verb. The stem of forementioned participle is closely related to the stem of the passive aorist. Many verbs do not form their stems according to a certain pattern, especially the irregular verbs. Due to the irregularity of a verb, some forms are not easy to predict and the stems are not formed according to a particular pattern

Hence this participle behaves like an adjective and have the ending in «-μένος» with the stress on the penultimate (second last syllable). They follow the pattern in «-ος, -η, -ο» and are all declined for gender, case and number.The formation of the stem-endings however is a complicated matter. The endings «-μένος, -μένη, -μένο»» are attached to the stems. The stem is formed in many different ways. In some cases the letter «-ε-» precedes the stem and the first consonant is repeated, or the letter «-ε-» precedes the stem for verbs beginning with consonant combinations or when the stem begins with the letters «ε», «α» or «αι» the vowel becomes an «η». In other words the stem may change but not the ending «-μένος, -η, -ο».

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The following sentences are some examples of the present imperfect of the passive voice with the endings in: «-άμενος, -άμενη, -άμενο», «-όμενος, --όμενη, -όμενο», «-ώμενος, -ώμενη, -ώμενο» or «-ούμενος, -ούμενη, -ούμενο»:

Επιλέξτε από την αναδυόμενη λίστα. Select from the drop-down list
Δε θέλω να τα δω ανακατωμένα, όπως την προηγούμεναi φορά. I don't want it to be seen mixed, like the previous time.
Πήγαμε με τους φίλους μου στα συγκρουόμενα. I was in conflict with my friends.
Σήμερα ήμουν πολύ αγχωμένος στο σχολείο. Today I was very early on school.
Δε βγάζω άκρη από τα γραφόμενά του. I can not make head or tail of his writings.
Η δουλειά είναι εθελοντική και όχι αμειβόμενη. The job is voluntary and not paid

The participle of the passieve voice in the present tense does not occur often and is not simple to use. It have been transformed in many cases, in the Modern Greek language, into a noun e.g. detainee - «ο κρατούμενος», protégé - «ο προστατευόμενος», contents - «το περιεχόμενο»(e.g. of a book), etc.

The following sentences are some examples of the perfect present of the passive voice with the endings in « -μένος, -μένη, -μένο».

Το επιλεγμένο κυβέρνηση δεν ανταποκριθεί στις απαιτήσεις του λαού. The chosen government did not meet the demands of the people.
  • «επιλεγμένο» - The active irregular verb is «επιλέγω». It is a compound verb of «επί + λέγω» together. The passive voice is «επιλέγομαι» of which the aorist stems are «επιλέχτηκα» and «επιλέχθηκα». For the stems with the endings in «-χτ- » en «-χθ-» the -«-γ-» is used to form the perfect oparticiple, hence «επιλεγμένος».
Τα παιδιά του είναι ιδιωτικά εκπαιδευμένα. His children are privatly educated.
  • «εκπαιδευμένα» - The active regular verb is «εκπαιδεύω». It is a compound verb of «εκ + παιδεύω» together. The passive voice is «εκπαιδεύoμαι» with the passive aorist stem «εκπαιδεύτηκα». The stem is in «-ευτ-» (more formally in «-ευθ-» and the formed perfect participle will be «εκπαιδευμένος» in this case.
Οι κληρωμένοι λαχνοί ανακοινώθηκαν. The drawn lotery tickets were announced.
  • «κληρωμένοι» -The active verb is «κληρώνω» and the passive «κληρώνομαι» with the aorist past «κληρώθηκα» and the stem stam ending in «-θ-». The perfect participle is in this case «κληρωμένος».
Έχουμε αγοράσει πολύ καλά δουλεμένα έπιπλα. We bought very well-made furniture.
  • «δουλεμένα»- The active verb is «δουλεύω», The passive voice is «δουλεύομαι» with the aorist past «δουλεύτηκα». The stem ending in «-ευτ-» of which the participle is formed «δουλεμένος»
Είναι πεταμένα λεφτά για να αγοράσετε κάτι τέτοιο It's a waste of money to buy something like that
  • «πεταμένα» - The active verb is «πετώ / πετάω» has two forms and consequently also two passive voices «πετάγομαι / πετιέμαι». The aorist past is «πετάχτηκα» and the stem ending «-χτ-». The formed participle is «πεταγμένος».
Αυτός είναι ειδικευόμενος γιατρός. He is a specialized doctor.
  • ειδικευόμενος» - Look at «εκπαιδευμένα» with the same stem-pattern.
Εξετάστηκαν σε διδαγμένη ύλη. They investigated the learned material.
  • «διδαγμένη» - The active verb is «διδάσκω» and the passive voice is «διδάσκομαι». The aorist past is «διδάχτηκα » with the stem ending in «-χτ-». The perfect participle is in this case «διδαγμένος»
H εθνική οδός είναι αποκλεισμένη από τους καπνοπαραγωγούς. The highway is blocked by tobacco producers,
  • «αποκλεισμένη» - The active verb «αποκλείω» is a compound verb of «απο + κλείω». De passive voice is «αποκλείομαι» of which the aorist past tense is «αποκλείστηκα» is. The stem ending is in «-στ-» and the formed perefect participle is «αποκλεισμένος».
Οι προσκαλεσμένοι περίμεναν για το άνοιγμα της έκθεσης. The invitees were waiting for the opening of the exhibition.
  • «προσκαλεσμένοι» - The active verb is «προσκαλώ», a compound verb of «προς + καλώ».The irregular passive voice is «προσκαλούμαι» with the aorist past «προσκλήθηκα» which stem has the ending «-θ-». In the case of irregularity the active aorist stem «-σ-» (e.g. «προσκάλεσα») is used to form the perfect past participle «προσκαλεσμένος».
Οι βλαμμένοι θα είναι να βρεθούν. The disadvantaged will be found.
  • «βλαμμένοι» - The active regular verb is «βλάπτω» and «βλάφτω». The passive voices are «βλάπτομαι» and «βλάφτομαι». The aorist past tense of both the forms is «βλάφτηκα» with the stem «-φτ-». In this case the perfect participle is «βλαμμένος».

Click the following link for the stem schemes and details on how the passive perfect participle is formed:

παρών - present, in attendance
case singular plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
1st παρών παρούσα παρόν παρόντες παρούσες παρόντα
2nd παρόντος παρούση/ας παρόντος παρόντων παρουσών παρόντων
4th παρόντα παρούσα παρόν παρόντες παρούσες παρόντα
5th -- -- -- -- -- --
Examples:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Tο κόμμα μας ήταν παρόν. Our party was present.
Είμαι παρών σε μια συζήτηση. I am present at a discussion.
Adjectives with the same declension:
- αναιρών recanted
- αποθανών dead, deceased, departed, late, passed away
- αποτυχών unsuccessful
- απών absent
- δηλών mentioning, explaining
- διψών thursty
- εκλιπών deceased
- επιλαχών runner-up
- επιτυχών successful
- μετανοών penitent, remorseful
- παθών suffering
- τυχών arbitrary
αύξων - rising, growing, increasing
case singular plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
1st αύξων αύξουσα αύξον αύξοντες αύξουσες αύξοντα
2nd αύξοντος αυξούσης/ας αύξοντος αυξόντων αυξουσών αυξόντων
4th αύξοντα αύξουσα αύξον αύξοντες αύξουσες αύξοντα
5th -- -- -- -- -- --
Examples:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
αύξουσα πρόοδος increasing progress
αύξοντες αριθμοί serial numbers
Adjectives with the same declension:
- απαστράπτων sparkling, scintillating, resplendent
- δευτερεύων secondary, subsidiary, subordinate
- ελπίζων hopeful
- ενδιαφέρων interesting
- επείγων urgent
- εποπτεύων supervising
- ιδιάζων peculiar
- ιριδίζων iridescent
- ισχύων in effect, current, valid
- λανθάνων latent, hidden, underlying
- μέλλων future
- περιοδεύων itinerant, travelling
- πρωτεύων main, primary, premier
- τρέχων current
- υπάρχων exsisting
- υπογράφων subscribed, undersigned
- φλέγων burning
  • The last two types of the adjectives originally are declined active voice participles of some Ancient Greek verbs, which can be compared with the english gerund
  • There are used as adjectives but not many are in common use.
  • They are found in older learned texts and journalistic writings or in a language which uses academic aspects to apply stylishness, formality and irony.
  • These participles are formed with the endings «-ων, -ουσα, -ον», or «-ών, -ώσα, -ών», or «-ών, -ούσα, -ούν», depending on the class of the verb, added to the imperfective stem of the verb.
  • Hence the present participles of the second conjugation type B verbs have the endings on «-ών,-ούσα,-ούν» in the nominative singular and «-oύντα,-ούσα,-ούν» in the accusatief singular. The ending «-ού-» is used for all other masculine and neuter forms whilst the feminine forms are the same as for «παρών», mentioned above. However apart from the words «επικρατών» - prevailing and «διοικών» - managing, these forms are hardly ever used too.
  • The two types mentioned above, have different stress patterns. The second type, «αύξων», is formed from the stem of the active present of first-conjugation verbs, with the endings in «-ων-ουσα-ον». The first type is derived in a different way.
  • The nominative forms are also used for the vocative, if necesarry.
  • The second conjugation type A verbs has the gerund ending (the active present participle) in «-ώντας» e.g. «απαντώντας» - meeting. The adjectives derived from this type have the endings on «-ών,-ώσα,-ών». There is a difference between this declension and that of «παρών», mentioned above, viz the masculine and neuter endings are spelt with «-ώ-» instead of «-ό-». The feminine endings always have the «-ω-», stressed or not. Although these forms are hardly ever found or used.
- ungrateful, unthankful
case singular plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
1st αγνώμων αγνώμων αγνώμον αγνώμονες αγνώμονες αγνώμονα
2nd αγνώμονος αγνώμονος αγνώμονος αγνωμόνων αγνωμόνων αγνωμόνων
4th αγνώμονα αγνώμονα αγνώμον αγνώμονες αγνώμονες αγνώμονα
5th -- -- -- -- -- --
Examples:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Αυτός είναι αγνώμων προς τον πατέρα του. He is ungrateful like his father.
Είσαι μια σκληρή και αγνώμων γυναίκα. You're a tough and ungrateful woman.
Adjectives with the same declension:
- αβρόφρων well-mannered
- αιθεροβάμων daydreaming, building castles in the air
- αυτόχθων indigenous, native, aboriginal
- γενναιόφρων generous
- δεισιδαίμων superstitious
- εθνικόφρων nationalistic
- ειδήμων expert
- ελάσσων minor, lesser
- εμπειρογνώμων specialistic
- ευγνώμων grateful, thankful
- μετριόφρων modest, unassuming, unpretentious
- σώφρων sensible
- νοήμων intelligent
  • This type consists of a few adjectives of which some forms are very uncommon. Sometimes an alternative masculine nominative singular is used in «-ονας» and a feminine nominative in «-ονη» may be used by speakers and writers of the ancient writing system (δημοτικά).
  • The established forms are mentioned above, with the notation that the neuter forms are almost never used.
  • Generally only the masculine singular and plural forms of the nominative and accusative in in «-ων» and «-ονες» and «-oνα» and «-ονες» can be confidently used.
  • The nominative forms are used for the vocative, if necessary.
δηλωθείς - stated
case singular plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
1st δηλωθείς δηλωθείσα δηλωθέν δηλωθέντες δηλωθείσες δηλωθέντα
2nd δηλωθέντος δηλωθείσας δηλωθέντος δηλωθέντων δηλωθεισών δηλωθέντων
4th δηλωθέντα δηλωθείσα δηλωθέν δηλωθέντες δηλωθείσες δηλωθέντα
5th δηλωθείς δηλωθείσα δηλωθέν δηλωθέντες δηλωθείσες δηλωθέντα
ελληνικά ολλανδικά
Η μέση δηλωθείσα ζημία είναι .....ευρώ. The average reported loss is € .....
Ιδιαίτερα για μη δηλωθέντες λογαριασμούς σε ξένες τράπεζες θα επανεξετάσουν τους φόρους. in particular for non-registered accounts with foreign banks, their taxes will be revised
Adjectives with the same declension:
- απολυθείς dismissed, fired
- δανεισθείς borrowed
- εισπραχθείς - collected
- εξαγγελθείς announced
- υποσχεθείς promissing
- .
δηλώσας avowed, asserted
case singular plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
1st δηλώσας δηλώσασα δηλώσαν δηλώσαντες δηλώσασες δηλώσαντα
2nd δηλώσαντος δηλώσασας δηλώσαντος δηλωσάντων δηλωσασών δηλωσάντων
4th δηλώσαντα δηλώσασα δηλώσαν δηλώσαντες δηλώσασες δηλώσαντα
5th δηλώσας δηλώσασα δηλώσαν δηλώσαντες δηλώσασες δηλώσαντα
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Ο δηλώσαντα ψυχίατρος, καθώς και οι ηθοποιοί αναφέρθηκαν στο παρόν κείμενο. The avowed psychiatrist, as well as the actors of the particular show were mentioned in the present text.
ο Γεώργιος, φέρεται δηλώσασα ότι θα στηρίξει με κάθε τρόπο τον ΣΥΡΙΖΑ. George, allegedly stated that he would support SYRIZA in every way.
Adjectives with the same declension:
- αμαρτήσας sinned
- λήξας ended, finished
- ποθήσας desired
-
  • Note account that the last two types of adjectives come from the Katharevousa, formed according to the corresponding adjectives from Ancient Greek.
  • In common practise they are very rarely used. Merely in a typical style in theoligical texts, as well as in journalistic speech.
  • The endings of the first adjective «δηλωθείς» in «-είς,-είσα,-έν» are based on the passive perfective stem.
  • The form «δηλωθείσας» of the feminine singular also have ending in «-ης».
  • The second adjective «δηλώσας» ending in «-ας,-ασα,-αν» is even rarer, but occurs in journalistic discourse.
  • It is derived from verbs with the active perfective (aorist) stems in
    «-σ-», «-ξ-» or «-ψ-»
  • The form «δηλώσασας» of the feminine singular also have ending in «-ης».
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